28.8.14

伊斯坦堡 (2) - 聖索菲亞大教堂 / Istanbul (2) - Hagia Sophia

聖索菲亞大教堂和藍色清真寺算是伊其坦堡最在名的兩座建築,它們只隔一個公園遙遙相對,這本身己經是一道景色。

Across the park from the Blue Mosque stands Hagia Sophia, they are the most famous monuments in Istanbul, and the two together is such an amazing sight.
 


由藍色清真寺看聖索菲亞大教堂 / Looking at Hagia Sophia from Blue Mosque’s outer courtyard

表裹不一的聖索菲亞大教堂 / Don’t judge Hagia Sophia by its exterior

以外觀來聖索菲亞大教堂真在是平平無奇,如果不是事先知道它的外貌,真的想不到這就是聖索菲亞大教堂。事真上它有名的原因是它的歷史和它裹的裝潢。

The exterior of Hagia Sophia is utterly unremarkable, had I not know what it looked like; I wouldn’t have known it’s such an important and famous monument.  Its fame comes from its history and its interior.
 

「平平無奇」的聖索菲亞大教堂 / The “unremarkable” Hagia Sophia


聖索菲亞大教堂的歷史 / Hagia Sophia’s history

現在的聖索菲亞大教堂是在同一地點的第三座教堂,這裹曾經存在過兩座被暴亂摧毀的教堂。公元532年拜占庭皇帝士丁尼一世下令建造現存的第三所教堂。在公元537年竣工時至1520年被西維爾主教座堂取代之前聖索菲亞大教堂一直是世界上最大的教堂。

卾圖曼土耳其人在1453年征服君士坦丁堡,蘇丹穆罕默德二世下令將大教堂轉變為清真寺。將鐘鈴、祭壇、聖幛、祭典用的器皿移去,用灰泥覆蓋基督教鑲嵌畫,並朝著聖地麥加的方向,鋪上禱告地毯等物。

隨着土耳其共和國的建立,1934年該教堂失去了其宗教意義。193521日,這座建築重新以博物館的身份對世人開放。(來源:維基百科)

The existing Hagia Sophia is the third cathedral to occupy the site.  There were two previous ones and both destroyed by rioters.  In 532, Byzantine Emperor Justinian ordered this third cathedral to be constructed.  From its completion in 537, it remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.

In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II; who converted this main church of the Orthodox Christianity into a mosque.  The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels and other relics were removed, and the mosaics depicting Jesus, his Mother Mary, Christian saints and angels were also removed or plastered over. Islamic features – such as the mihrab, minbar, and four minarets – were added.

It remained a mosque until 1931 when it was closed to the public for four years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey. (Source: Wikipedia)


金碧輝煌的大教堂 / The glorious interior

踏入大教堂,第一感覺就是金碧輝煌,因為它真的是「金」光閃閃的。金黃色的天花壁畫,金色的鑲嵌,金黃色的燈光,金色的阿拉伯書法

Stepping inside the cathedral, my first feeling was “gold”… golden wall paint, golden mosaic, golden glow, and golden Arabic script…

外廊的金色天花 / The golden ceiling in the narthex
金色的蘇丹簽名鑲嵌 / The golden mosaic of Sultan’s signature

「金」光閃閃的大堂 / The “golden” nave
金色的阿拉伯書法圓匾 / The massive Arabic script roundels

還有就是宏偉,又高又大的穹頂、大大的空間、一大塊一大塊的阿拉伯書法圓匾、連牆上陳舊的塗漆都訢了歷史的痕跡可惜的是當時半個大堂都被維修棚架遮擋

Also it’s grand and glorious; the big and high dome, the spacious nave, the massive Arabic script roundels, even the timeworn paint on the wall show its history…  What a shame half of the hall was in scaffolding…

由另一個角度,可見大堂的宏偉 / From another angle, it’s so grand and glorious

55.6米的穹頂 / The 55.6m tall dome

連維修棚架的大堂全貌 / The full view of the nave with the scaffolding

在壁龕的上方近穹頂的位置,有幾幅畫有聖母瑪利亞和天使的畫像,附近還有幾塊阿拉伯書法圓板,看到了一點天主教和穆斯林文化的共融。

Above the mihrab close to the dome, there’re a couple wall painting of Mary, Jesus and angels, and a couple of Arabic script roundels close by.  It’s a tiny example, but it’s nice to see some co-existences between both Christianity and Muslim.

兩種宗教的共融 / The mix of both religion


其他相片 / Some other photos:

來一張自拍照 / Here’s a selfie

由吊燈中間去看聖母壁畫 / Looking at wall painting of Mary and Jesus through the chandelier

加冕台,自動導遊器這是拜占庭皇帝加冕的地方。 由十二個小的圓形大理石圍繞大的圓形大理石,但我數了很多次都數不到十二個小的大理石… / Coronation square, audio guide says here’s where the Byzantine emperor being crowned. It’s made of a big round shaped marble stone surrounded by 12 small ones, I counted many times, just couldn’t count all 12 small marble stones…

在大堂裹有一對很大的大理石水瓶,這是其中一個 / There’re a pair massive marble water jar in the corner of the nave, here’s one of them

壁龕,是一幅圓形的崁入牆,用來指示聖城麥加的方向。由於聖索菲亞大教堂前身是一間教堂,所以壁龕並不是在祭壇的中央,而是在偏右的位置 / The mihrab, is a rounded niche in the wall that marks the direction of Mecca.  Since Hagia Sophia started out as a Christian cathedral, the mihrab here is slightly off-center, because that’s the direction of Mecca.

在二樓的東正教畫像鑲嵌 / The Christian mosaic on the first floor

一直都很好奇圓匾的後面是怎麼樣的… / I’ve always wondered what're the back of the roundels are like…

在大堂出口的壁畫鑲嵌 / The mosaic at the exit of the nave

在大堂外的淨身泉 / The ablution fountain on the outside


聖索菲亞大教堂前身的遺跡 / The remains of the old Hagia Sophia

教堂 vs. 清真寺 (第二回) / Church vs. Mosque (round 2)

我在土耳其旅程的最後一日,在聖索菲亞大教堂和藍色清真寺之間的公園看到電視台的攝制人員,好奇心驅動之下,我主動走過去問他們在拍什麼。原來他們是電視台的新聞攝制人員,在拍一段關於聖索菲亞大教堂的報道。

On my last day in Turkey, I saw a television crew filming in the park between Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque.  I asked them with curiosity what they were filming.  It turned out they were the local TV station's news crew, doing a feature on Hagia Sophia.

土耳其政府打算將聖索菲亞大教堂由博物館再次改成清真寺,他們打算採訪市民和遊客的看法。他們並沒有訪問我 (我知道我的面貌並不上鏡),但我在心裹想,伊斯坦堡真時這麼需要清真寺到這麼一個程度?需要把一間博物館再次改成清真寺? 我在伊斯坦堡住了五天,並沒有遇到過回教徒在寺外做禱告。這雖然不能明什麼,但會令我問「真的這麼需要嗎?」。

Apparently the Turkish government has been thinking converting Hagia Sophia from a museum back to a mosque.  The news crew was there to interview the locals and tourists for their views.  They didn’t interview me (I know I’m far from photogenic…), I just can’t help to think, does Istanbul really need another mosque this badly? Need to convert the museum back into a mosque?

事實上,如果要改建的話,我想我會樂意見到把它再度改為教堂。兩座分屬不同的宗教的建築遙遙相對,所表現的宗教共融,我相信會有更大的意義。

In fact, if any conversion is to take place, I’d much rather like to see Hagia Sophia to be converted back into a church.  2 religious monuments belong to different religions, facing each other in distance; I think this co-existence of 2 different religions carries more meaning than its current state.


新聞攝制人員 / The news crew

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